Preterm births continue to cause long-term sequelae for infants worldwide. Interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that promote better outcomes can make an impact on preterm infants’ futures. The purpose of this review was to determine if kangaroo care has positive physiological effects on preterm infants in the NICU. Practice changes to enhance kangaroo care in the NICU include reducing barriers such as medical complexity and staff misconceptions as well as facilitating increased parental presence. The review of the literature found evidence to support the positive outcomes that kangaroo care has on neonates’ growth, vital signs, stress outcomes, and pain. Implications for practice include increased use of kangaroo care for preterm infants in the NICU. The findings in this literature review can potentially impact outcomes for preterm infants by improving their physiological status while in the NICU.

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