Rawlings School of Divinity


Master of Arts in Christian Apologetics (MA)


Daniel Sloan


Apostle Paul, Paul, Pauline, Ancient, Apologetics, Tools, Methods, Approach, St. Paul, Mars Hill, Contemporary, Post-Modern


Christianity | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


This thesis recounts that societal history is repeating itself in modern times whereby there is a pattern of similarity with the Millennials and Generation Z and ancient audiences of the Apostle Paul in terms of paganism and humanism at the forefront of hearts and minds pushing back on Christianity (albeit today’s exposure to post-modernism and digital influences do not present in the ancient world of the Apostle Paul). Similarly, the ancient world was interested in the advances of its day of science and philosophy. The Millennials and Generation Z population, a majority of the population globally, are ripe for the gospel message of Christ and are essentially the “tipping point” to the future of Christianity in the First World. Although Christianity does face numerous struggles amidst the digital age and competing ideologies at play. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze ancient Pauline apologetic methods for contemporary application. This thesis explores the current views of the church and Christianity noted by societal pushback, considering if Paul’s ancient methods can be effectively applied to current culture to win souls for Christ, and whether similar more modern methods would receive Paul’s approval if he were alive and in charge of worldwide missions today. The hope is that the apologetic toolkit for contemporary application would be of benefit and use in the adoption of toolsets to counter the pervasive threats to Christianity today. This thesis looks at how the ancient apologetic lessons of Paul may be reviewed, considered, and utilized through an apologetic toolkit based on ancient times and culture that relates to contemporary times both in method and approach. This thesis is designed to speak directly to the apologetic community that is uniquely equipped to consider the recommendations and make the necessary adjustments to apologetics as seen through Paul’s eyes.