Save for September 11, 2001, arguably no other incident in American history generates persistent and impassioned debate associated with the questions of why and on whom to affix responsibility than does the Pearl Harbor raid. For both Japan and the United States the road to December 7 (or 8th in Japan), was long and complex. Ensconced within the context of what was underway in Europe, there existed little room for diplomatic miscalculations or missteps. Thus for American civil, military, naval, and diplomatic leaders in Washington, D.C. and throughout the world, that American installations were attacked should not have been, and to varying degrees were not taken aback. Most surprising then from the American perspective was the place and how that attack happened. So again, how did the U.S. Army and Navy in Hawaii render themselves such an inviting target in the late fall of 1941?
Keywords: Roosevelt, Yamamoto, Kimmel, Short, Pearl Harbor
Jeter, Marc C.
"A Matter of Accountability: Communication and Coordination Failures Proceeding Pearl Harbor,"
Bound Away: The Liberty Journal of History: Vol. 5:
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/ljh/vol5/iss2/4