During the spring and early summer of 1862, Maj. General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and his Army of the Valley engaged several larger Union forces during a series of battles and skirmishes in the Shenandoah Valley. On June 8, 1862 at the Battle of Cross Keys, Major General John C. Frémont attacked Confederate infantry, commanded by Jackson’s subordinate Maj. General Richard S. Ewell, in an attempt to capture a strategically valuable bridge at the small town of Port Republic. Frémont was was forced to retreat when the inexperienced 8th New York Volunteer Infantry was flanked, leading to a collapse of the entire Federal line of battle. Ultimately, Frémont was defeated at Cross Keys by lack of information after he did not gather intelligence or learn how Ewell’s force was positioned prior to ordering his command to advance against Ewell’s strongly placed defensive battle line.
"“Broken Ground of Which I Was Entirely Ignorant:” John C. Frémont Outclassed at Cross Keys,"
Bound Away: The Liberty Journal of History: Vol. 3
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/ljh/vol3/iss1/4