Publication Date

Spring 5-6-2024


School of Health Sciences


Biology: Biomedical Sciences


Type II diabetes, insulin resistance, beta cell function, and therapeutic strategies


Medicine and Health Sciences


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. This condition occurs due to two main factors: β-cell dysfunction and reduced response to insulin by cells and tissues with insulin receptors (insulin resistance). Insulin resistance occurs when the body fails to respond to insulin; therefore, cells and tissues are impaired in transporting glucose, leading to abnormally high glucose levels in circulation. Insulin resistance is a multifactorial condition; thus, the eminent cause is not fully known. Individual health conditions and genetic predisposition have been postulated to cause it. Molecularly, insulin resistance has been associated with complications in the glucose-fatty acid (Randle’s cycle) and the activation of specific transcription factors such as FOXO1. There is no cure for T2DM, but a combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies has been effective in managing the progression of the disease. Oral hypoglycemic agents, for instance, promote insulin sensitivity, facilitating glucose uptake. These include thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and biguanides. Other agents such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, a-Glucosidase inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter two, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor analog have been used in T2DM treatment. Other potential treatment options include stem cell therapy, direct lineage programming, bromocriptine, statin therapy, and inceptor receptors. Non-pharmacological approaches incorporate lifestyle changes like diet, physical exercise, and emotional treatment to manage the disease. An overview of these therapeutic strategies reveals the progress in the research aimed at finding a feasible cure for T2DM.