School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Amanda Rockinson-Szapkiw


Cognitive Load Theory, Reading Attitude, Reading Level, Second Grade, Social Cognitive Theory, Zone of Proximal Development


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Elementary Education and Teaching


This study investigated the effect of ebooks as a tool for providing small group reading interventions and independent reading practice to second grade readers in the classroom. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, non-equivalent control group design was used to compare whether instructional reading environments (ebooks only, traditional books only, or both ebooks and traditional books) affect reading level and attitudes towards reading, while a posttest only non-equivalent control group design was used to measure reading behaviors of second grade students. A convenience sample of 88 English-speaking students at a rural, public elementary school in Southern Michigan participated. Reading level was measured by the Developmental Reading Assessment 2® (DRA2®) measuring independent reading level. Data was also collected utilizing the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS), a 20-minute group assessment containing 20 questions to determine participants' reading attitudes. Self-report reading logs were used to determine reading behaviors. The experimental groups consisted of second grade students from three of the four second grade classrooms, while the control group participants were students in the remaining classroom. Reading level and ERAS data were analyzed using ANCOVAs to compare the four groups with pretest scores providing statistical control, while one between-groups ANOVA assessed reading behavior. The results of the study revealed that instructional reading environment affected reading levels and reading attitudes but did not influence reading behaviors.

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