School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Gina Grogan


at-risk, automaticity, fluency, gender, math, Reflex math


Curriculum and Instruction | Disability and Equity in Education | Education | Educational Methods | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching | Science and Mathematics Education


The search for evidence-based math interventions that are easy to use and impact academic achievement are in demand, and the impact that these interventions can have on students who struggle with math achievement is of concern. In this study, the effects of Reflex math computerized intervention to improve the automaticity of basic math facts among male and female middle school students identified as at-risk for academic failure in mathematics was examined according to differences in mean scores and based on gender. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used for the purposes of the study. Convenience sampling among students receiving or qualifying for response to intervention services for math was used to determine the study participants. The Basic Math Operations Task (BMOT) served as the pretest and posttest against which differences in mean scores were determined with analysis of covariance used to examine the differences. Results as well as assumptions, limitations, and recommendations for the future are included.