School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Jerry Westfall


Face-To-Face Classrooms, Student Achievement, Student Engagement, Technology Enhanced Classrooms, Traditional Classrooms


Community College Leadership | Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Higher Education | Instructional Media Design


The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which student engagement and academic achievement were associated with exposure to different modes of instruction; specifically technology enhanced environments vs. traditional FACE-TO-FACE environments. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in October 2013 at a local community college in Charlotte, NC. The Class Level Survey of Student Engagement (CLASSE) was administered to collect valid and reliable variables relating to student engagement from a convenience sample consisting of 80 volunteers enrolled in the Medical Science and Science divisions. Other variables were collected using the Demographic Questionnaire, and the Instructional Environment Questionnaire. The community college also provided secondary archival data consisting of the frequency distributions of grades achieved by 4102 students in October 2013. The cross-sectional survey revealed that students may be more engaged by technology than by traditional FACE-TO-FACE instruction; however, educational practices such as preparing for classes, taking notes, outside reading, and doing homework, with low levels of absence were relatively more important predictors of student engagement than the use of technology. Analysis of the secondary data indicated that the frequencies of grades achieved by students taught in technology enhanced environments are significantly different to the frequencies of grades achieved by students taught in a traditional classroom environment; however, there were no consistent patterns. The results indicated that multiple factors, in combination with technology, influence student engagement and achievement. Educational institutions need to continue to provide reassessments of their perspectives using both traditional FACE-TO-FACE and technology enhanced modes of instruction, and further research is necessary to identify long term trends.