School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Jerry Westfall

Primary Subject Area

Education, General; Education, Curriculum and Instruction; Education, Technology; Education, Tests and Measurements; Education, Teacher Training


First Grade, Gender Differences, Geometry, Minority Differences, STEM, Visualization


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Instructional Media Design | Teacher Education and Professional Development


Visualization was once thought to be an important skill for professions only related to engineering, but due to the realization of concurrent design and the fast pace of technology, it is now desirable in other professions as well. The importance of learning basic knowledge of geometrical concepts has a greater impact than it did prior to the 21st century. This study's purpose was to test the effect of enhanced visualization instruction on the visualization skills measured by the North Carolina standard course test for first grade students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted using the non-randomized subjects, non-equivalent control group design. Nine elementary classrooms with a total of 157 students participated. The standard end of course test scores of the participants were analyzed using a two-way ANCOVA to establish whether a significant difference existed among the sample means based on instructional delivery method and gender and instructional delivery method and race. A pre-test was used to control for differences between groups. A Tukey's HSD test was used to evaluate multiple comparisons for delivery method. Results indicated that instructional delivery had a significant effect on post-test scores. Participants who took part in a classroom with instruction enhanced by multimedia or manipulatives scored higher than those who received instruction without any enhancements. Participants who received instruction with both multimedia and manipulatives had the highest scores. Gender and race were not significant factors in the students' success. Discussion of further research is also incorporated.