Rawlings School of Divinity


Doctor of Philosophy


Ashley Davis


Typology, Christ, Jesus of Nazareth, the Death of Christ, Prophecy, Crucifixion, Judges 19, Isaiah 53, Psalm 22, Abel and Cain, Joseph, Moses, Samson, David and Absalom, Naboth's Vineyard, 1 Kings 13


Christianity | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


In Luke 24, two disciples recognized that Jesus had predicted He would suffer, be betrayed, and handed over to death by crucifixion, and had said He would rise again on the third day. It was now the third day, and Jesus was no longer in the tomb, but they were confused as to what these things meant and how they came to be. Jesus says to them, “‘O foolish ones and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things and to enter into His glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself” (vv. 25-27). Furthermore, He explained that “all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me” (v 44). This foretelling by the full scope of the Old Testament, was to communicate that suffering, death, and rising were necessary to bring about repentance and remission of sins (v 47). The thesis of this dissertation is that even within the narrative sections of Scripture that are comprised mostly of the Pentateuch and Former prophets, Christ’s suffering, death, and resurrection were foretold. Specifically, they were foretold not just in the few direct prophecies but within the lives of the characters, in the words that were spoken, within actions done, and in events that played out. It further will contend that typology is the best hermeneutical method to be used to determine the type-antitype connections between Christ’s suffering, death, and resurrection to the characters and events in these sections of Scripture. Moreover, these narratives will be filtered through the two clearest direct prophecies concerning the death of Christ, Isaiah 53 and Psalm 22, both of which were written during the time of the Former Prophets. Because Isaiah 53 is considered by several scholars to not have been written during Isaiah’s lifetime but much later, and by some that David was not a historical monarch of the Israelite people, time is spent establishing the chronology of the Bible and the interconnections between Isaiah’s and David’s writings to the Former Prophets and Pentateuch.