School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


John J Pantana

Primary Subject Area

Education, General; Education, Adult and Continuing; Education, Higher; Education, Curriculum and Instruction


Bloom's Taxonomy, Face-to-face, Instructional delivery model, No Signifigant Difference, Online, Residential


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research


The purpose of this causal comparative study is to test the theory of no significant difference that compares pre- and post-test assessment scores, controlling for the instructional delivery model of online and face-to-face students at a Mid-Atlantic university. Online education and virtual distance learning programs have increased in popularity and enrollment since their inception. Students tend to enroll in online courses for their flexibility and convenience and find online courses to be just as challenging as face-to-face courses (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009). Russell (1999) conducted a meta-analysis which found that there were no significant differences between the modes of class delivery on student achievement and learning. Current research supports this analysis; it has been shown that students and instructors perceive online learning to be just as effective as face-to-face (Liaw, Huang, & Chen, 2007). Bloom's Taxonomy has been used to structure the thinking process in education. Elevating an awareness of pedagogical shifting across delivery models will likely lead to more effective university teaching in both face-to-face and distance programs (Girod & Wojcikiewicz, 2009). Utilizing an ANCOVA, research was conducted pre and post instruction that determined differences existed based on the instructional delivery model in a remedial English course favoring face-to-face instruction. Further, regarding the occurrence of higher order thinking skills, statistical analysis based on a t-test indicated that online students more frequently exhibit this skill versus students enrolled in face-to-face instruction.