School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Jeffrey Savage


1:1 iPads, technology, 3rd grade, reading achievement, digital divide, constructivism, NC end-of-grade testing, reading gap, implementation


Education | Elementary Education


This quantitative causal-comparative study examined the effects of one-to-one (1:1) iPad instruction versus traditional instruction on urban third-grade students' English Language Arts (ELA) achievement. The research is significant given the rising use of technology, like the 1:1 iPad initiative, to combat declining reading proficiency. It highlights the pivotal role of third-grade reading proficiency in future success, aligning with education policies and catering to modern learners. This study provides valuable insights for educators, administrators, and education stakeholders by elucidating the impact of technology on reading achievement. As one-to-one instruction gains prominence, understanding its influence on students' reading performance is crucial due to its potential for improving achievement. The study encompassed 293 third-grade students from elementary schools in North Carolina's Central Piedmont region, with 170 in non-iPad classrooms and 123 in iPad-equipped classrooms. The North Carolina End-of-Grade Reading Test (EOG RT) assessed reading achievement, with pre-and post-test scores derived from archival student data. Data analysis employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The findings indicate no significant difference in reading achievement between third-grade students using 1:1 iPad technology and those in traditional classrooms. Future research recommendations encompass longitudinal testing, broader geographical sampling, exploration of various subjects, examination of diverse student groups, and investigation into reading instruction methods, iPad usage time, and teacher-student attitudes. These avenues can deepen our comprehension of technology's impact on student achievement.