School of Education
Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)
21st century skills, critical thinking, flipped classroom model, homework, problem solving skills
Education | Educational Methods
Hickman, Kristine K., "Experiences of Middle School Teachers Implementing the Flipped Classroom Method with Lack of Student Preparedness: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study" (2023). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects. 4880.
The purpose of this qualitative, transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of middle school teachers in the United States implementing the flipped classroom model (FCM) when students are not coming to class prepared. The FCM is a framework in which students engage in passive learning activities at home by watching videos uploaded by their teachers so that they can engage in active learning activities in the classroom. The theory guiding this study is Vygotsky’s social-constructivism theory as it promotes critical thinking and problem-solving skills through collaboration, which are very important skills required of today’s 21st century learners. The following questions were researched in this study: (a) What are the experiences of middle school teachers in the United States implementing the FCM with student completion of homework?, (b) What are the experiences of middle school teachers in the United States implementing the FCM with student engagement in the active learning process when homework has not been completed?, and (c) What are the experiences of middle school teachers in the United States implementing the FCM with social collaboration among students during the learning process when homework has not been completed? Data collection included interviews, document analysis, and letter writing from 10 participants who have used the FCM for at least two years. Participants were selected from a flipped learning site on social media by completing a questionnaire. Data analysis included epoché, phenomenological reduction, and imaginative variation and then synthesized to determine the essence of the lived experience of the participants. Three themes that emerged from the data analysis were: homework completion improved and builds confidence, noncompletion of homework leads to delayed engagement, and noncompletion of homework causes insufficient collaboration within the classroom. Two outliers were identified in the area of homework completion.