School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Grania Holman


cultural diversity, cross-cultural dimension, social constructivism, constructivist learning environment, transcendental phenomenology


Education | Educational Leadership


This transcendental phenomenological study sought to understand and describe teachers’ lived experiences with cultural diversity in middle school and high schools using cross-cultural dimensions as lenses. A social constructivist research paradigm derived from Lev Vygotsky’s social constructivism theory urged this study’s theoretical framework. The approach of cross-cultural dimension from Geert Hofstede was applied as a lens to investigate the participants’ views about their experience with cultural diversity. Teachers from middle school and high schools participated in the research. The participants were from different social backgrounds, races, lifestyles, countries, and organizations, which made each answer unique regarding cultural diversity and cross-cultural dimensions. The research includes 12 interviews. Interviews, transcriptions, questionnaires, memoing, and journaling produced the data that were thematically analyzed to reach a conclusion and create the findings. Purposeful, snowballing, and criterion sampling guided the selection process. The researcher applied epoché, phenomenological reduction, and imaginative variation while formulating textural and structural descriptions to analyze the participants’ interviews and capture their lived experiences without bias. The analysis produced seven themes focused on cultural diversity in the classroom. They are: 1) Cultural Diversity Implementation, 2) Teaching Methods and Practices facilitating Cultural Diversity, 3) Professional Development Ineffectiveness about Cultural Diversity, 4) Cross-Cultural Dimensions in the classroom, 5) Experience Level Importance in Cultural Diversity, 6) Fear of Reprisal and Being Incompetent, 7) Value of Parents’ Voices for Cultural Diversity Integration.