School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)


Jerry W. Green


employee attrition, retention, life stage, voluntary termination, human resources, autonomy, working from home, work-life balance


Labor Relations | Psychology


The objective of this study was to evaluate if a relationship exists between factors for push (attrition) and pull (retention) and employee life stage. With job attrition rates increasing almost 10% in the last 10 years and employers paying $2.4 trillion in 2021 because of employee turnover, the need to understand what drives retention and attrition remains very real. A survey, containing a demographics section and items rated on a Thurstone-like scale, was administered to full-time employees in the United States. Four hundred and eighty participants responded to the survey, but after removing responses that were incomplete or were completed by participants who did not meet the requirements, the sample size was 386. Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to determine if a relationship between push factors and life stage existed. Push factors that showed statistically significant relationships were overall company, future opportunity, autonomy, work-life balance, and working from home. Pull factors that showed statistically significant relationships were autonomy, work–life balance, and working from home.