School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Alisha Castaneda


Co-teaching, COVID-19, Barriers to co-teaching, Emergency remote learning, benefits of co-teaching, Pandemic, Special Education, Inclusion, Self-efficacy, Social Cognitive Theory, Reciprocal Causation




This hermeneutic phenomenological study aimed to describe and understand the experiences of online co-teaching through the perspectives of general education and special education co-teachers at the middle school level during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study followed Bandura’s social cognitive theory, emphasizing self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism as it explains how people think, feel, motivate themselves, and behave. The study answered the following overarching research question: How do co-teachers perceive their ability to implement all-online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic? The school setting for this study is Sunny County Public Schools (pseudonym), a suburban public school district in East Georgia. The researcher used individual interviews, focus groups, and journal prompts to triangulate the data. A cross-case and thematic analysis organized the findings of the co-teachers’ descriptions into themes to analyze each perspective during the pandemic. Three themes emerged from the data: building relationships, collaborating effectively, and adapting to the virtual environment. The study provides valuable insights into the opportunities and recommendations for improving virtual co-teaching practices, with implications for school districts and co-teachers. Future research is recommended to explore further the impact of virtual co-teaching on teacher self-efficacy, collaboration, and student achievement.

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