Graduate School of Business


Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)


Darlene Casstevens


business as mission, funding methodology, economic outcomes, social entrepreneurship organizations


Business | Missions and World Christianity


In a 2014 research study, Dr. Steve Rundle examined the impacts of business-funded versus donor-funded business as mission (BAM) organizations. The research study answers Dr. Rundle’s call for further research on funding models, and the findings from the study help to fill in gaps in the social-entrepreneurship (SE) and BAM literature. BAM organizations, like other SE-oriented organizations, seek to achieve success in multiple bottom lines. The qualitative, multiple-case study utilized a theoretical replication design to explore differences between donor-funded and business-funded BAM organizations in Asia. Specifically, the research study explored principles related to BAM funding methodology’s impact on economic outcomes for BAM organizations operating in Asia. The study included 25 participants from 16 different BAM organizations. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, available organizational documents, and visual materials. The following six themes emerged from the study: (1) value of aligning mission and vision, (2) authentic businesses operating in a dynamic environment, (3) necessity of an on-ramp, (4) expectations tied to money, (5) be prepared and trust God, and (6) intentionally structure the business and strategic relationships. The findings of the study and recommendations for further study added to the body of knowledge. Additionally, the findings expanded the topic of funding methodologies in the context of BAM organizations and certain economic outcomes.