School of Communication and the Arts


Doctor of Philosophy in Communication (PhD)


Shannon Leinen


communicating, CIF, experiences, feelings, indirect, storytelling, Kierkegaard, Fisher, Aristotle, Husserl, St. Teresa of Avila, Burke, Whitman, McDuffie, Lindsay, McDaniel, Leinen, Hepburn, Mott, Todd, Halvorson, Carbaugh, EARTH, CuDA, communication, mental, processes, shared, meaning, phenomenology, Socratic, nature, imagination, semiotics, modernity, rhetoric, entelechy, senses, sensory, indescribable, ineffable, spiritual, God, Jesus, Christian, Bible, psychologism, metaphysics, mystical, UFO, words, vocabulary, ontology, epistemology, metacognition, behaviorism, qualitative, participant reactions, Theory of Mind


Communication | Psychology


The words people use to describe indirect human experiences and how narratives play a role are examined within qualitative research. The problem is that some people have difficulty communicating indirect experiences, and few studies have examined the issue. The purpose of this qualitative narrative research study was to examine how people who encountered indirect communication in their lived experiences can communicate the indirect experiences and messages they received. The theory guiding this study is the indirect communication theory as it relates to Communicating Indirect Feelings (CIF). The definition of CIF is how people attempt to communicate indirect feelings for shared meaning with others. The research questions explored how people who have experienced indirect experiences engage with storytelling attempts, whether or not the storyteller felt as though shared meaning occurred when indirect experiences were described through storytelling, and a metacognitive exploration of what the storyteller felt they were able to adequately communicate about their indirect experience. The results indicated people can communicate indirect experiences. Future research ideas include participant reactions, trust, and intentionality.