School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Susan Quindag


education, reading, intervention, SPIRE, specialized program individualizing, reading excellence, self-efficacy, reading, intervention, struggling reader, instructional practices


Education | Elementary Education


The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to describe educators’ perceptions concerning the implementation of the Specialized Program Individualizing Reading Excellence (SPIRE) as an intervention to help students meet state proficiency standards at a large suburban school district in Utah. Bandura’s self-efficacy theory served as the theoretical framework to guide an inquiry into educators’ beliefs and how well they executed the SPIRE intervention to answer the central research question, “How do educators explain their perceptions of the use of SPIRE in the classroom?” This study utilized a multiple-case study design that captured the perception of 12 educators who served in the role of literacy coach, district literacy specialist Title 1 Coordinator, special education teacher, or educational aid. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling to provide rich information about the phenomenon. Data were collected, analyzed, and triangulated through multiple sources: written letters, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. The data were coded to formulate important ideas and to identify themes. The themes that emerged were educators’ understanding of SPIRE, the practice of SPIRE as an intervention, benefits of SPIRE, barriers to SPIRE, and professional development. Based on the findings, educators perceived that the implementation of SPIRE improved the struggling students’ reading scores on state proficiency standards.