School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Education in Community Care and Counseling (EdD)


Tracy N. Baker


Parenting Styles, African American, authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, academic success


Counseling | Education


The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to examine how parenting styles influence African American children and adolescents’ academic success. The theory guiding this study was Diana Baumrind’s parenting typologies authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. A sample size of 10 African American participants who had at least one child, 3 months to 18 years of age, were recruited and selected through purposeful and snowball sampling. Each participant was interviewed via recorded Zoom meetings and data were collected utilizing open-ended, semistructured, in-depth interview questions. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what response is given that characterizes parents’ relations with their children at home in relation to their academic achievement? (b) regarding scholastic performance, which PS do African American parents exhibit at home most frequently, and (c) what initiatives may be applied in the school systems to help bridge the educational gap for children from minority groups, particularly, African American pupils? The data were analyzed to form themes and subthemes using the grounded theory method. The study findings revealed that authoritative parenting style was the participants’ primary parenting style of interaction. This research offered practical implications for teachers, parents, school officials, and law enforcement. Five emerging themes (autonomy, literacy builders/literacy enrichment, generational parenting differences/generational parenting similarities, parental academic quality time, and school quality) and six subthemes were derived from the study.