Rawlings School of Divinity


Doctor of Philosophy


Robert Van Engen


COVID-19, Leadership Flexibility, Crisis Management, Emotional Intelligence, Educational Leadership, Transformational Leadership


Educational Leadership | Social and Behavioral Sciences


K-12 Florida Christian schools were disrupted due to the advent of a global crisis brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Flexibility was needed by educational leadership during this time of crisis. For that reason, this study will aim to understand the leadership principles necessary to provide leaders with the flexibility to adapt to extreme circumstances. The literature addresses the leader’s importance of being flexible during a crisis (Ruffner & Huizing, 2016). However, the literature continues to examine the effects of the pandemic on education but has not identified those contingencies that are necessary for leaders in the Christian educational system to face a crisis. Transformational leadership is a powerful way to influence the process utilized by leaders as it “persuades followers to adopt certain behaviors in order to bring about what the leader considers as beneficial change” (Bush, 2018, p. 883). The design that was utilized for this study was a quantitative correlational approach, which was used to measure the degree of relationship between two or more variables (Creswell, 2019). The research and data analyzed aimed at finding if there was a correlation between leadership principles and the contingencies necessary to ensure flexibility when dealing with a crisis for both the research literature and practical applications to educational leadership.