School of Education
Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)
after-school program, 21st Century Community Learning Center, STAR reading assessment, STAR math assessment, student outcomes, rural school
Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research
Hogan, Jeremy Brent, "After-School Programs: Impact on the Academic Outcomes of Elementary Students in a Rural School" (2023). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects. 4184.
The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine if there is a difference in academic achievement between first-, second-, and third-grade students who attended a 21st Century Community Learning Center after-school program and first-, second-, and third-grade students who did not attend a 21st Century Community Learning Center after-school program. There is limited research investigating the effect of after-school programs on the academic achievement of students from rural school settings. Offering quality after-school programs in rural communities is important to meet the needs of students and families and promote positive academic and social outcomes. The sample (N=1062) included first-, second-, and third-grade students who attended a 21st Century Community Learning Center funded after-school program and first-, second-, and third-grade students who did not attend an after-school program. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare student performance on STAR reading and STAR math benchmark assessments. There was no significant difference in STAR reading scores and STAR math scores between first-, second-, or third-graders who participated in a 21st Century Community Learning Center after-school program and those who did not. Recommendations for future research include using a random sample from a larger population, a longitudinal study comparing participants and non-participants over multiple years, and a mixed methods study analyzing participation, academic achievement, and staff training and experience.