School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Patricia Ferrin


social support, self-determination theory, burnout, early sport specialization, athletes, sport motivation


Sports Studies


The purpose of this quantitative, non-experimental correlational survey study was to evaluate the relationship between sport motivation and the types of support received from coaches, parents, and peers for NCAA Division III athletes. NCAA Division III athletes (n= 74) who participated in baseball, softball, men’s and women’s basketball, and men’s and women's soccer during the 2021-2022 school year completed a demographic survey, the Sport Motivation Scale-II (SMS-II), and the Athlete Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ). Scores for the SMS-II and the ARSQ were calculated, and a multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. Athlete’s scores for the SMS-II averaged M= 39.08, with scores ranging from -38 to 105. Average scores on the ARSQ for coaches: emotional (M= 15.47), esteem (M= 16.24), informational (M= 20.32), and tangible (M= 20.91); parents: emotional (M= 22.27), esteem (M= 121.66), informational (M= 22.59), and tangible (M= 16.53); peers: emotional (M= 20.45), esteem (M= 20.38), informational (M= 22.97), and tangible (M= 20.79). A statistically significant relationship was found between sport motivation and the types of support provided by coaches, where the researcher rejected the null hypothesis F(4, 69) = 3.65, p = .009. An analysis of coefficients was performed, but none of the predictor variables were significant on their own. The researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis for parents F(4, 68) = 0.724, p = .579 and peers F(4, 68) = .705, p = .591. Based on the findings, social support from coaches has a positive impact on the sport motivation of NCAA Division III athletes. More research needs to be done to further determine the relationship between types of support provided by parents and peers and sport motivation.