School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Jeremiah Koester


educators conceal carry, school shootings, active shooter, mass shooting


Education | Educational Leadership


The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand how educators described their desires and lived experiences of carrying a firearm in a K-12 school. A transcendental phenomenological design was used in this study to examine the essence of the participants’ experiences. The theory that guided this study was Crano’s (1995) vested interest theory which established an individual’s perceived significance and hedonic relevance of an attitude-implicated action’s outcome. Attitude-behavior consistency exists when there is a strong association between opinions and actions. The central research question guiding this case study asked: What were the lived experiences of educators who desired and who were licensed to carry concealed weapons in school? The sub-research questions investigated how did your desire to conceal carry empowered your ability to defend yourself and others? What impact does your feeling of safety motivates you to carry a firearm? How do educators describe their experiences in relation to the Second Amendment Rights? This study intended to capture the authentic voice of educators who desired to conceal carry in a K-12 school. The method for this transcendental phenomenological study incorporated educators lived experiences through in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and a focus groups as the primary data collection methods. Three themes emerged for the data, safety, training, and protection. The findings of the study showed that all participants believed that possessing a firearm while in the school environment improved their ability to counterbalance potential shooters intruding into their work environment.