School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Benny Fong


Job Satisfaction, Job Demands-Resources, Workplace Spirituality, Positive Psychology, Subjective Well-being, Positive Character Strength


Education | Human Resources Management


The purpose of this study is to understand how the positive psychology elements of subjective well-being and positive character strength moderate the relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction of faculty at Christian colleges and universities. The study utilizes a quantitative non-experimental predictive correlational study. This work presents a gap in the literature as it relates to the study of job satisfaction, specifically, workplace spirituality as a job resource. Research has largely looked at elements of the work environment and working conditions that impact faculty job satisfaction, which leaves the personal job resource element of workplace spirituality and the positive psychology elements less studied. This study utilized a convenience sample of faculty from Christian colleges and universities in the US. Faculty were asked to answer survey questions from the Spirit at Work Scale (SAWS), the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire- Job Satisfaction Scale (MOAQ-JSS), the Flourishing Scale (FS), and the Global Assessment of Character Strengths-24 (GACS-24). Data was analyzed using moderation analysis through hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results indicated that workplace spirituality was correlated to job satisfaction. Additionally, the element of subjective well-being served as a moderator between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Positive character strength had no moderating impact on this relationship. Implications of the results are discussed, as with considerations for future research. Future research should consider specific elements of workplace spirituality; using composite elements of character strength, such as happiness strengths; use of another satisfaction scale that could possibly assess greater satisfaction elements; assess whether factors, such as stress, burnout, or depression are influential; and increasing the sample size.