School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Constance Pearson


Christian schools, inclusion, inclusive education, inclusive special education, special education, disabilities, self-efficacy




The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to determine how accurately self-efficacy for inclusion of students with special needs could be predicted from a linear combination of predictor variables (pre-service training in special education; in-service professional development on topics related to special education; years of teaching experience) for general education teachers in Christian schools. When the factors that predict teachers’ self-efficacy for inclusion of students with disabilities (SWD) are understood, school leaders can tailor more effective professional development and training to improve the willingness and effectiveness of teachers to create inclusive school environments. An online survey of teachers’ self-efficacy for inclusion was completed by 139 general education teachers from North Carolina Christian schools; participants also provided information related to their pre-service training, in-service training, and years of experience in education. Self-efficacy for inclusion was measured using the Teachers Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) and compared to demographic information provided by the participants. Data was analyzed with a multiple regression to determine the best predictors of teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion. The results indicated no significant correlation between the predictor variables and teachers’ aggregate self-efficacy for inclusion or the subfactors of inclusive instruction, collaboration, and managing disruptive behaviors. Future research should consider a qualitative component for a more comprehensive understanding of how teachers define inclusion and their self-efficacy for inclusion. Also, future researchers should analyze each of the three predictors and the responses to individual items on the instrument separately.

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