School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Supervision (PhD)


Fred Volk


Counseling, counselor education, multicultural competence, broaching, cultural humility, integration, transformative learning




This study is the critical first step in evaluating the Integrated Model for Teaching Multicultural Competence (IMT-MCC), which has the potential to completely revamp the way counselors are trained in multicultural competence (MCC) to be far more effective. By adding the domain of clinical interventions to the well-established MCC domains of awareness, knowledge, and skills, the model lays out a plan for countering current education deficits. Beginning with the Counseling Techniques and Helping Relationship course, this study adds MCC components to each course activity without adding additional work for students. Specific broaching prompts were provided, and each culture reference was tallied to answer the research question; “Will classifying broaching as a basic counseling skill with didactic training, reflection, and experiential practice affect the frequency of culture-related discussions during mock counseling sessions?” Each afternoon of a five-day intensive, counseling students recorded mock-counseling sessions in a control group and an experimental group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups showing statistically significant increases in culture references by both the counselor and client on all five days of the intensive. Future recommendations for research include editing this course and further exploring the IMT-MCC applied to other counseling courses.

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Counseling Commons