Rawlings School of Divinity


Doctor of Philosophy in Theology and Apologetics (PhD)


Ronnie Campbell


Moral Apologetics, Moral Realism, Perfection, Divine Command Theory, Natural Law, Virtue Ethics


Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


Amid the milieu of ethical theories and presuppositions about morals, a significant disconnect exists at the confluence of moral theories and human behavior. One may parse the issue as follows: If objective morals exist, humans are to live by them; however, no one lives a perfectly moral life. According to the moral standards identified by different theistic ethical theories (i.e., divine command theory, natural law, and virtue ethics), one may surmise that objective morals exist and that humans imperfectly live a moral life according to these standards. If it is the case that both secularists and theists recognize this issue, then explanations and solutions must be offered to alleviate the tension or else dispel the problem altogether. This study seeks to demonstrate that a person must receive some form of divine assistance from a perfectly moral being to live a moral life. Since God is both the source and the arbiter of morals, this study proposes that is it at least possible that He also provides the assistance needed for humans to live up to His expectations.