School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Nathan Putney


secondary teacher, self-efficacy, technology integration, classroom technology


Education | Mathematics


The purpose of this study was to explore how a teacher's technology self-efficacy influences decisions they make about the use of technology in their classrooms. The factors influencing teachers' technology self-efficacy were examined through a qualitative transcendental phenomenological research design. This study's theoretical framework was based on the combination of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory; both provide insight into how external and internal factors can influence a person's perception of their abilities. Using these theories helped identify and describe the self-efficacy experiences of high school math teachers. This research was conducted during the 2020-2021 school year using a qualitative approach to explore the technology self-efficacy of high school mathematics teachers from school districts in Virginia. The study was divided into two phases: interviews with teachers, document analysis and focus groups, and qualitative data aggregation. To collect a participant pool, an initial demographic survey was administered to all full-time, certified math teachers at five rural school sites. Next, a group of ten teachers with varying levels of technology self-efficacy were interviewed and participated in a focus group to better understand factors influencing their current level of self-efficacy. Document analysis was performed using a letter of advice from each participant to a teacher struggling with technology integration. The data analysis was completed using Moustakas' systematic steps to provide textural and structural descriptions that capture the essence of teachers' experiences with technology. The results of this transcendental phenomenological study showed that mastery experiences accounted for 47% of the codes that were given to statements made by participants. Participants shared that practicing before using new technology with students was a critical experience that teachers used to increase their self-efficacy.