School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Gail Collins


Principal, Rural, Technological Practices, Technological Literacy


Education | Educational Leadership


The purpose of this bounded multi-site study was to understand how the technological practices of principals in small K–12 rural schools in western Canada foster the technological literacy of teachers. Technological practice was defined as the ability to support the application of technology by guiding, managing, and developing different aspects of the organization to improve performance. The theory guiding this study was the social cognitive theory of Albert Bandura, based on triadic reciprocal determinism which involved personal, behavioral, and environmental experiences. The sample for this research study were principals and teachers in small K–12 rural schools in western Canada. Data were collected through documents, interviews, and two focus groups. One focus group included principals and the other included teachers. Data from individual cases were analyzed first followed by a cross-case synthesis. The central research question asked, How do principals in small K–12 rural schools in western Canada use their technological practices to foster technological literacy among their teachers? Five themes emerged from three sub questions. The themes support and connection developed from sub question one which asked about the personal leadership practices of the principals in fostering technological literacy. The two themes sub question two presented were the relationship skills of principals which was the ability to deal with the challenges of becoming technologically literate and the ability to give opportunities to teachers to become technologically literate. The theme that emerged from sub question three in regard to the type of environmental surrounding that was important to foster technological literacy in teachers was having the technological tools available to the teachers.