School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Meredith Park


Educational Technology, Beginning Teacher, Technology Integration, Technology Integration Self-efficacy, Dedicated Technology Course, Technology Infusion


Curriculum and Instruction | Education


Four-year educator preparation programs in North Carolina are tasked with producing teachers capable of effectively integrating technology in the curriculum. The state created The Digital Learning Competencies for Classroom Teachers as the guidelines for what teachers are expected to know and be able to do with regards to digital technology integration. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between beginning teacher self-efficacy with technology integration and the extent to which technology was infused in their undergraduate four-year educator preparation programs (stand-alone course versus technology infusion across the undergraduate curriculum versus a combination of both a technology course and technology infusion). This study used a non-experimental ex post facto causal-comparative design to examine the survey responses of 126 elementary school teachers in North Carolina who graduated from four-year educator preparation programs and were in the first three years of their teaching careers. The scale used was an electronic version of the Technology and Teaching Efficacy Scale (TTES). The data was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. The study did not identify any statistically significant differences in the beginning teachers’ total technology integration self-efficacy scores based on the level of technology infusion in their undergraduate teacher education programs. Recommendations for further research include replicating the study across the state, follow-up qualitative research, and longitudinal research on beginning teacher technology integration self-efficacy over the first three years.