School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Vivian Jones


Online Learning, Blended Learning, Credit Recovery, Face-to-face Instruction


Education | Educational Leadership


Despite the increasing popularity of using online and blended technology to recover lost initial credit, there has been limited research as to the effectiveness of online only credit recovery models, and the effectiveness of blended learning models, especially in secondary public education. This study is important in that it analyzes which method of content delivery is most effective for a particular population. The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine if there were any statistical differences in the individual final numerical course grades of students taking online only credit recovery English I and Math I classes, and students taking the same credit recovery classes in a rotational blended learning environment. This study used an independent samples t-test, and descriptive statistics to compare archival data from high school students in a rural North Carolina county who took online only, or blended credit recovery classes, during the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 academic years. After the t-test was administered, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences in the final course grades of students taking online only credit recovery classes, and blended credit recovery classes using a blended rotational model for both Math I and English I classes. Students taking rotational blended classes had significantly higher means for their final numerical grades as compared to students taking online only classes for both Math I and English I. Future studies should include teacher perceptions of online and blended credit recovery, student motivation using these models, and larger sample sizes comparing different demographics of students.