School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Michelle Barthlow


Self-efficacy, School Librarian, Student Achievement, Standards of Learning Reading Assessment, Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale, Librarian




This study examined the difference in school librarians’ self-efficacy between elementary, middle, and high school librarians. It also attempted to determine if self-efficacy levels in elementary school librarians can predict the overall average pass rates on the Virginia Standards of Learning Reading assessment for their schools. The study was conducted quantitatively using the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale that was sent out electronically to members of the Virginia Association of School Librarians contact list, using a convenience sample of 234 school librarians across the state of Virginia as well as the results of the Virginia Standards of Learning reading scores. An ANOVA was used for the causal-comparative design to examine the difference in self-efficacy levels, and a correlational design using a bivariate linear regression to aid in determining if self-efficacy was used to predict reading scores. The data analysis resulted in a failure to reject Null Hypothesis One and a rejection of Null Hypothesis Two. The results of this study support the need for lessons on self-efficacy in preservice school librarian programs and at school librarian conferences, and the results may be used to remind schools and school librarians of the impact they can have on student achievement. Recommendations for future research include expanding the participant pool, creating an instrument more in line with school librarians’ tasks, utilizing a qualitative design, factoring other demographics such as years of service, and examining middle and high school reading scores.

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