School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Rebecca Lunde


Elementary Mathematics Specialists, Math Coaches, Classical Christian Grammar Schools, Self-efficacy, Departmentalized, Non-departmentalized


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Elementary Education | Religious Education


Classical Christian schools have increased exponentially over the past 20 years. The main mission of a classical Christian education is to produce a student who is better equipped to think and apply the Christian worldview to every situation. Classical schools are based on the Greek Trivium which focuses on the tools of learning: grammar school, logic school, and rhetoric school. Classical tenets include integration of content, memorization of basic facts, and reliance on the Socratic Method. Utilizing the Socratic Method requires teachers to be confident in their understanding of mathematics. Because of the lower mathematics self-efficacy of elementary school teachers, they struggle with being able to utilize the Socratic Method. Mathematics specialists and coaches have been shown to produce positive results in increasing teachers’ self-efficacy in schools. The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative, causal-comparative research study was to determine if significant differences exist between self-efficacy scores of classical Christian grammar mathematics teachers with and without the presence of mathematics’ specialists or coaches both within departmentalized and non-departmentalized classrooms. A total of 117 grammar school teachers at classical Christian schools across the country were sampled and data collection was conducted using the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI). The results were tabulated in SPSS. No statistically significant difference was found between the total MTEBI scores. Further research recommendations were made to study the quality of the elementary mathematics specialists and the spirituality of the teachers.