School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Kelly L. Paynter


Digital Natives, Early Millennials, Recessionist, Innumerate, Instructional Technology, Elementary Mathematics


Education | Elementary Education


Mathematics instruction continues to be of immediate concern in the United States. The availability of technology has become commonplace in today’s classrooms. However, the integration of technology-assisted instruction involves a paradigmatic shift in traditional mathematical practices. Instructional technology, such as interactive whiteboards, handheld tablets, laptops, software, and desktop-based devices, serves as a tool to aid students in communicating mathematically and conceptualizing mathematical reasoning. Research posits that when teachers can personally adapt to the use of innovation, instructional technology in the classroom can be a rigorous tool used for the development of individualized, student-centered learning. As generational shifts of power take hold, Millennial teachers are rising to become the most dominant group of educators in America. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study is to relate Millennial teachers’ age to the frequency and variety of instructional technology used during math instruction at public K-5 elementary schools in Texas. A Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient was computed to assess the hypothesized relationship between Millennial teachers’ age and their use of technology. The instrument used in this study was a modified version of the Use, Support, and Effect of Instructional Technology (USEiT) Teacher Survey The theories guiding this study include Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovation and Constructivism. Results indicated no significant relationship between Millennial teacher age and the frequency subscales for technology use during math instruction. Additionally, no significant relationship was found between Millennial teachers’ age and the variety of technology used during math.