School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Supervision (PhD)


Joy Mwendwa


Competent Multicultural Supervision, Multicultural Competence, Intentional Integration, Supervisor’s Characteristics, Supervision Process


Counseling | Counselor Education | Education


There is sufficient evidence that supports the ethical responsibility supervisors have to facilitate multicultural discussions through the integration of cultural topics in the supervisory session. Unfortunately, it is reported that supervisors who feel inadequate addressing cultural issues tend to ignore and not integrate such discussions. This lack of competence leads to the frustration and dissatisfaction of supervisees, which in turn impacts counseling practice. A dearth of information exists about the process that counseling supervisors follow to integrate multicultural topics in supervision. Further, there is limited evidence about the action and interaction between the supervisor and supervisee leading to the integration of cultural content. A qualitative research study using grounded theory was conducted with 14 counselor educators and supervisors to explore the process, action, and interaction occurring in the supervision session that leads to the integration or avoidance of multicultural topics. The primary research question asked: How do counseling supervisors conceptualize the practice of multicultural counseling supervision in counseling sessions? Four sub-questions inquired additional relevant information. Three main themes emerged from the data: Intentionality of Integration of multicultural topics, Competent Multicultural Supervisor characteristics, and Competent Multicultural Supervision Process. These three themes formed the components for A Model for Competent Multicultural Counseling Supervision. Implications of this study inform the field of counselor education and supervision with education and training recommendations to develop and enhance competence in multicultural counseling education, supervision, and training.