School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Michelle Barthlow


African American Girls Discipline, Discipline Referrals, Disportionalities in Discipline, Middle School Girls Discipline, School Discipline


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Psychology


The mission of the single-sex education is to provide learning environments that will bring out the best in each student and will provide opportunities for success that may not be available in co-educational settings. Several explanations have been suggested for differences between single-sex and coeducational settings in educational processes and in student outcomes. Schools that implement single-sex schools do so with the hope of decreasing the social pressures and distractions that will lead to a decrease in office discipline referrals which unenviably lead to suspensions. The purpose of this ex-post facto casual comparative study examines the impact single-sex schools have on the office discipline referral rates of African American girls collected from two middle schools in an urban district in northeast Florida, one a single-sex middle school (n=212) and a co-educational setting (n=239). Chi-square test were conducted to examine an association in office discipline referrals by school type. The results demonstrated that there is a significant association between school setting (single-sex and co-educational) and the frequency of level of offenses in office discipline referrals. This study also seeks to realize the perceptions of the African American girls from the same single-sex and co-educational middle school using the Secondary Classroom Climate Assessment Instrument - Student survey. Independent t tests demonstrated that they were no significant differences between single-sex and co-educational school settings. This discussion provides school districts additional research to implement single sex-schools to effort to improve the excess discipline referrals in African American girls.