Amy RogersFollow




School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Lucinda Spaulding


Classroom Observations, Collaboration, Co-teaching, Inclusion


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Administration and Supervision | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research


The purpose of this study was to develop and field test the Co-Teaching Observation Instrument (CTOI) to determine its validity and reliability as an instrument for the observation of general and special education teacher practices in co-taught classrooms across kindergarten through twelfth grade levels. Face and content validity were established through a review by 10 experts in the field of special education. The experts were asked to pilot the instrument and then rate the composite instrument on a three point Likert-type scale in terms of whether it measures co-teaching practices including the dimensions of collaboration/teacher parity, teacher to student interaction, instructional roles, instructional strategies, individualized instruction, and classroom management. The experts were also asked to rate each of the 48 items as essential, useful but not essential, or not necessary. Following the expert review, five items were removed. Field testing was completed with the observation of 160 pairs of co-teachers (N = 320) in classrooms across the state of Georgia. A principle component analysis (PCA), which resulted in the removal of 8 additional items and a four factor solution, established construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha and the Spearman-Brown coefficient were calculated to establish reliability and internal consistency. It was concluded that the Co-Teaching Observation Instrument (CTOI) is a valid and reliable measure of effective co-teaching practices. This instrument yielded 35 interpretable items loading onto four components/subscales: (a) classroom interaction, (b) classroom management, (c) instructional strategies, and (d) instructional roles.