School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Jerry Woodbridge-Cornell


blended learning, high school, homeownership, mathematics achievement, online learning


Curriculum and Instruction | Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Psychology


The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to compare the methods of traditional face-to-face classroom instruction and blended online instruction for students from differing home environments who were repeating a Mathematics I course at the high school level. This quantitative study, conducted at three high schools in Georgia, used the theories of self-regulated learning, student-centered learning, Keller’s ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) model of motivational design of instruction, and cognitive load theory to compare the two approaches to learning. The participants in this study consisted of 398 high school students taking a Mathematics I class for the second time in either a traditional classroom setting or a blended online setting between January of 2010 through June of 2013. Archival data was collected regarding demographic information and student outcomes on Georgia’s End of Course Test (EOCT) from each school’s student information system. Archival data was also collected from county tax records to verify homeownership status for the parents or guardians of student participants. A pretest/posttest causal comparative design was used. The pretest consisted of each student’s previous EOCT score while the posttest consisted of each student’s End of Course Test score after repeating the course. Two-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the archival data in the study. Results of the study indicated a statistically significant difference on the posttest when comparing the blended online setting and the traditional classroom setting, but no statistically significant difference based on a family’s homeownership status and no significant interaction between the mode of instruction and parents’ homeownership status.