School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Ralph Marino


At-risk, Direct-Instruction, Mathematic Intervention, Middle School


Curriculum and Instruction | Disability and Equity in Education | Education | Educational Methods | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching | Science and Mathematics Education


Educators are seeking ways to improve student academic achievement in math and to increase math standardized test scores because of the requirements of the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and Race to the Top initiative (RTTT). One such intervention in middle school is a direct-instruction math program. This causal-comparative study examined the relationship between a direct-instruction math intervention and math achievement on standardized test scores of at-risk middle school students. This study compared the differences in the mean scale scores for at-risk middle-school students who received a direct-instruction math intervention and at-risk middle school students who did not receive a direct-instruction math intervention on the math subtest of the 2012 Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test, while using the 2011 scores as a control variable to control for previous math ability using a one-way between-groups analysis of covariate (ANCOVA) statistical test. Further, this study compared the relationship, by gender, between a direct-instruction math intervention and math achievement on standardized test scores. The data from the study suggests that the direct-instruction mathematic intervention did result in the intervention group having a significantly higher mean scale score on the 2012 mathematic subtest of the Georgia CRCT than the control group for both genders.