Pamela McKee




School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Jennifer L. Courduff, Gale L. Colvert


1:1 Technology, 21st Century Technology, Experienced Teachers, Pre-millennial Teachers, Transformative Learning, Veteran Teachers


Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Psychology | Other Education | Social and Philosophical Foundations of Education


In an effort to improve educational experiences and provide differentiated instruction, both public and private schools alike are requiring the inclusion of 21st century digital technology in K-12 classrooms, and more specifically, 1:1 initiatives that provide a device for each student. Transitioning to a 1:1 classroom initiative presents unique challenges to pre-millennial, veteran teachers. There is limited research examining the experiences and perceptions of this unique group of teachers, especially those involved in private education. The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of pre-millennial, veteran teachers in three private, independent schools as they integrated digital, 1:1 technology into their elementary classrooms. This study utilized the theoretical framework of Ely’s Conditions of Change and Mezirow’s Adult Transformative Learning. Research questions focused on pre-millennial, veteran teachers’ perceptions of: (a) integrating 1:1 tablets and laptops; (b) how teaching has changed since the integration; and (c) the role professional development played throughout the process. Purposeful sampling was used to identify pre-millennial veteran teachers who were born prior to 1980 and who have taught for more than 10 years. Data collection included an online survey, personal interviews, and a focus group. All data were analyzed using Moustakas’ phenomenological analysis. Provisional codes were identified using the interview and focus group data, and significant statements were clustered into themes. The study revealed the following four themes: (a) technology enhances instruction; (b) technology is supplemental to instruction; (c) teachers’ role remains unchanged; and (d) pre-adoption, incremental, and on-site technical support is required.