School of Education
Doctor of Education (EdD)
economically disadvantaged, gender, middle school, reading instruction, school-wide strategy, Thinking Maps
Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching
Woodford, Karen Ogden, "The Effect of Thinking Maps® on the Reading Achievement of Middle School Students: An Ex Post Facto Causal Comparative Study" (2015). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects. 1003.
The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, relationship existed between Thinking Maps® instruction used as a school-wide strategy and student achievement in middle school students in the area of reading as reported by the Virginia State Standards of Learning Test scores. The association was tested through full implementation and instruction of Thinking Maps® as a school-wide strategy. Using a quantitative design, this ex post facto, causal comparative included a comparison of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students' Virginia Reading SOL scores from 2011, 2012, and 2013 after schools implemented Thinking Maps® as a school-wide strategy compared to schools that did not. Scores obtained by middle school students who received Thinking Maps® instruction were examined for increases in overall mean scores, by gender, and by socio-economic status. These scores were compared to two middle schools that were not using Thinking Maps®.