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Ideas have consequences—for good or bad. The apostle Paul, in his letter to a group of Romans, stated that the metaphysical world could be known to humanity (Rom 1:18ff). Over 1,800 years later, Emanuel Kant, a German philosopher, challenged this view of the metaphysical world; that is, Kant claimed that God could not be known, and western Christian philosophy has scrambled ever since to make sense of the two.1 On a similar scale, Howard Gardner, professor at Harvard University, challenged the prevailing view of intelligence in 1983 with his book Frames of Mind, stating that there were a number of different types of intelligences, as opposed to the singular form of intelligence affirmed by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ).


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