Revelation 3:10 is rightly know as a passage that supports the pre-trib rapture doctrine, but the second half of the verse introduces us to the first use of the term “earth dwellers.” “Because you have kept the word of My perseverance, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that hour which is about to come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell upon the earth.” 3:10 is the first use in Revelation of a phrase I call “earth dwellers” but usually translated “those who dwell upon the earth.” This phrase is used eleven times in nine verses in Revelation (3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 11:10 2xs; 13:8, 12, 14 2xs; 14:6; 17:8). A preliminary working definition is that “earth dwellers” is a designation for persistent unbelievers during the tribulation.
Ice, Thomas D., "The Meaning of "Earth Dwellers" and the Book of Revelation" (2009). Article Archives. 46.