Rawlings School of Divinity


Master of Arts in Biblical Studies (MA)


Anthony Chadwick Thornhill


Theophany, Second Temple, Jewish Perception, Second Temple Literature, Exodus 19, Theophanies, Sinatic Language




The Temple stood as the center of cultic Jewish life. It was their location for worship and where God had placed His name. It was a space where sacrifices were offered, and prayers heard. This sacred place was a permanent reminder that God had chosen to dwell among the people of Israel. As long as His presence remained among them, the people knew there was somewhere they could go to find and approach Him. Yet with the devastation of Solomon’s Temple and Ezekiel’s vision of the glory departing prior to its destruction the question remains how did the Jewish people justify their return to worship at this desecrated Temple-less spot? Did the Jews during this time believe the presence of God to again dwell in the Jerusalem Temple? Did they have historically recorded miraculous or theophanic type events that gave them confidence in their ability to worship there? If the Jews perceived the presence of God to be at the Second Temple what evidence did, they point to and did the literature of the Second Temple support this belief?

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