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Document Type



Biblical Studies | Comparative Methodologies and Theories | Ethics in Religion | History of Religions of Eastern Origins | History of Religions of Western Origin | Other Religion | Religion | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


Published in Global Missiology Vol 2, No 8 (2011).


Since Paul Hiebert first challenged missiological reflection with his notion of the “excluded middle,” missiologists and practitioners from the West have been forced to face the deficiencies of a rationalistic worldview; especially when serving in animistic contexts. Hiebert, Bill Musk, Rick Love, and others have further asserted that Western missionaries serving among Folk Muslims need to be better equipped to minister to the felt needs of their host peoples. While the literature and evidence of missionary practice suggest that North Americans and Europeans are working hard to climb “learning curve” dealing with this worldview. Missionaries from Brazil serving among Arab-Muslims seem to have fewer obstacles in this area.