Publication Date

Fall 2019


School of Health Sciences


Biology: Biomedical Sciences


xenoestrogens, environmental estrogen, reproductive health, parabens, BPA


Xenoestrogens such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dioxins are compounds found in ordinary substances such as detergents, cosmetics, plastics, pesticides and herbicides (Sonnenschein & Soto, 1998). Estrogen is a vital component in the development of the male and female reproductive system. However, xenoestrogens mimic endogenous estrogenic signaling and exhibit endocrine disrupting properties that may cause long-lasting repercussions on human reproductive health. Xenoestrogen bind to both intracellular and membrane-bound estrogen receptors resulting in an inappropriate activation of tissue-specific estrogenic responses, leading to low sperm count in males and precocious puberty and polycystic ovarian syndrome in females (Shanle & Xu, 2011). Although the pathways of many xenoestrogens mechanism are unknown, the detrimental outcomes on reproductive health are evident.