Publication Date

Spring 4-25-2017


School of Divinity


Religious Studies


Molinism, Arminianism, Foreknowledge, Human Freedom, Reformed Theology


Christianity | Metaphysics | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


Evidence is examined concerning the coherence of divine foreknowledge as defined by Arminianism and Molinism. Arminianism argues that God has complete and infallible knowledge of the future, and attempts to simultaneously maintain a strong view of libertarian freedom. Molinism agrees with the Arminian stance on foreknowledge and human freedom, but argues that middle knowledge must also be posited for God to have strong providential control over His creation. It is argued that Molinism better accounts for the biblical data and provides a more coherent theological and philosophical position, since Arminianism cannot provide a strong theory of providential control. Subsequently, a defense is given for Reformed Molinism, which combines Molinism with Robert Kane’s event-causal version of libertarian freedom.