Publication Date

Spring 4-2016


School of Business


Business: International Business


Douglass McGray, Japan's Gross National Cool, anime, cultural export, Japan, Crunchyroll, piracy


International Business


In 2002, writer Douglas McCray coined the term “Japan’s Gross National Cool,” which was used to describe Japan’s distinct cultural exports. More specifically, though a recent phenomenon, the current academic consensus indicates that Japanese animation, or anime, is a unique Japanese cultural export based on McCray’s concept. However, from McCray’s article in 2002 to 2015, the anime industry globally has changed in several key ways: popular consumption has grown, Internet and streaming use has increased, and Internet piracy has increased. This leads to necessitating a change in business concepts for marketing the medium worldwide by analyzing specific marketing mechanisms, but primarily anti-piracy precedents in Taiwan and the streaming company Crunchyroll.