Publication Date

April 2007


College of Arts and Sciences



Primary Subject Area

Biology, General


baraminology, land fowl, galliform, galliforms, galliform birds, baramin, holobaramin, taxonomy, hybridization, baraminic distance, BD, MDS, multidimensional scaling


This study investigates the number of galliform bird holobaramins. Criteria used to determine the members of any given holobaramin included a biblical word analysis, statistical baraminology, and hybridization. The biblical search yielded limited biosystematic information; however, since it is a necessary and useful part of baraminology research it is both included and discussed. Baraminic distance and multidimensional scaling suggest four holobaramins (cracids, megapodes, guineafowl, and all other galliforms), while a review of hybridization records infers only two (megapodes and all other galliforms). All analyses for statistical methods were based on a dataset obtained from Dyke et al. (2003). I suggest that the Order Galliformes contains a megapode holobaramin and a cracid + phasianoid holobaramin, based on analyses of morphological and hybridization data.


This thesis was written under the direction of Dr. Timothy Brophy, professor of biology at Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia.